The Checkpoint Therapy- Helping Your Immune System To Fight Cancer By Unleashing The Brakes On Immune System

Abstract The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to James P. Allison and TasukuHonjo for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation. In 1996, James P. Allison and coworkers used this accumulated knowledge to demonstrate that antibodies directed against a cell surface molecule on T cells, CTLA-4, is capable of unleashing an immune response, which cured mice of tumors. Prior to this, in the laboratory of TasukuHonjo, a new molecule named PD-1 had been identified. With the aid of biomedical companies, Allison succeeded in developing the new co...
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Advances In Abdominal Access For Laparoscopic Surgery

 Abstract There are several laparoscopic surgery abdominal wall access techniques. The most useful and well-established is the open Hasson technique. The Veress needle closed technique is another alternative, but its use is controversial owing to possibly higher rates of rare insertion complications. Optical trocars have been developed in an attempt to decrease complication rates even further, although the evidence base supporting their use is limited. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is used in certain centers to carry out various abdominal surgeries, but most commonly appendecto...
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Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) Findings Of Unilateral Ischemic Maculopathy Associated With CMV Retinitis In Patient With AIDS

Abstract Cytomegalovirus(CMV) retinitis in Acquired Immuno- Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients is the quite common entity. But unilateral ischemic maculopathy associated with CMV retinitis in Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is very rare. We report a 43 years old female who presented to our hospital with decreased visual acuity and floaters. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated increased reflectivity at the inner retinal layer with a preponderance in the nasal area of the macula and macular oedema. The patient was treated with oral valganciclovir, started on HAART, and ad...
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Study Of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis In Enteric Fever

Abstract Introduction: Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a complication of enteric fever with abdominal symptoms. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is seen in 5-10% of all cases of acute cholecystitis. Although acute cholecystitis is rare in adults, we found a 10% incidence of acute acalculous cholecystitis in the pediatric age group. Material and Methods : We conducted a study of acute acalculous cholecystitis as a complication in enteric fever cases. We studied 20 cases (male-13,female-7) out of 200 enteric fever cases from July 2015 to June 2018. Results : 200 cases of Enteric fever were incl...
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A Study Comparing Blood Transfusion Requirement And Frequency Of Blood Transfusion In Splenectomized And Non-Splenectomized Children With Beta Thalassemia Major – Our Institutional Experience

Abstract Introduction : Beta thalassemia major is an autosomal recessive blood disorder. Thalassemia refers to a group of genetic disorders of globin chain production in which there is an imbalance between the α-globin and β-globin chain production. β-Thalassemia syndromes result from a decrease in β-globin chains, which results in a relative excess of α-globin chains. Material and Methods : Sample size : 45. Duration of Study: June 2016- June 2018. Children from 5 to 15 years of age who are diagnosed case of Beta thalassemia Major with blood requirement more than 200 ml/kg/year. The patients...
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Recurrence Risk of Febrile Seizures In Children

Background : Identifying children with febrile seizure who are at risk for recurrence is important so that special attention can be given to them. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures in children. Methods : This prospective hospital based study was conducted among children of 6 months to 6 years of age. Children meeting the selection criteria were enrolled in study. Clinical, investigation, treatment and outcome parameters were analyzed. Results : A total of 82 children with febrile seizure were enrolled in the study. Males accounted...
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Clinical Profile Of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)

Abstract Background : This study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS), so as to facilitate early diagnosis of OSAS. Methodology : A retrospective study was conducted at pulmonary medicine department of tertiary care hospital. Data of 68 patients diagnosed as OSAS, was reviewed to study symptomatology, demography, various probability scores and co-morbidities associated with OSAS. Results : We observed male predominance in the male to female ratio of 1.95:1. Dominant age group we found in our study was 40-55 years, as 41.17% patients belonge...
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Comparison Of Scleral-Fixated Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation And Posterior Iris- Claw Intraocular Lens Implantation In The Treatment Of Aphakia With Insufficient Capsular Support

Abstract Aim : To compare the outcome of scleral-fixated posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) with retro-pupillary fixation of iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) in the treatment of aphakic eyes with insufficient capsular support as regard to the safety, complications and visual outcomes of the procedure. Methods : A total of 40 patients were divided into 2 equal groups : 20 eyes were implanted with scleral fixated PCIOL and 20 eyes were implanted with irisclaw IOL. Postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) & postoperative complications were compare...
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